In2edu I.C.T. Resources Enhancing Education & Learning

Digital Technologies Screen Time Leading to Increased Suicides?

Nothing like a good debate, and emotive headlines! 
As a parent now living at home without children (and old enough, as a ex youth leader. AKA up to a year ago - keeping me young), as a teacher, and as a digital technologies advocate, I think we need to keep having this sort of debate. Our pupils should be having discussions and reflective thinking time among themselves and with their parents on these topics, encouraged as part of our Digital Technologies programmes.
More important than the skills we teach - this is the interesting debate between the differences in the Maori version of the Digital Technologies document and the English version - are the underlying values and attitudes that we are wanting to see developed in pupils. Explicit teaching of these values are difficult in a curriculum with emphasis on assessment of knowledge and skills and in time poor situations, which is why we must as teacher internalise these so well that we use incidental teachable moments constantly to back up any explicit teaching. How we model digital citizenship (including parents) is an important part of this also.
The starting point for this entry was reading an article entitled: "With teen mental health deteriorating over five years, there’s a likely culprit." which is examining the links between social media, screen time and teenage health including impacts on suicide rates. The basic opinion of the article is that the the peak in 2012 of suicide rates can be linked to the length of screen time, backed up by interpretation of data from some studies. My initial comment reaction was:
"I would be interested, living in N.Z. with one the highest rates of suicide if correlation with screen time tracks country rates of suicide?I also wonder if there is a perfect storm for today’s generation, a bit like possible tipping points for climate change: increasing nuclear families, widening gaps inequality, increased social media pressures and intrusion, less church and youth group attendance (other places to learn to socialise), less involved parenting styles, increased academic pressures, increased negative talk (society, bullying) etc as well as the screen time factor. This could mean then that sudden spikes in suicide could come as all of these items gather in the minds or backgrounds of the youth of today. Can combined effects therefore have spiking effects that no-one effect is on its own responsible for. However, this also could mean that addressing one effect at a time can be a way to undo what is happening - so taking action in some way within your family is important?"

Related to pupils and screens is a speaker Nicholas Karadaras. Author, and experienced addictionologist, he is currently touring NZ under the banner of the term, "GlowScreens". His stance is that children under 10 should not be interactive with screens and that digital screens are a 'giant have' by technology companies to sell gear. He points out that Finland got to the top of PISA without a lot of Digital Technology. This was true - but remember PISA focuses on 'paper' tests and that Finland in 2017 is now restructuring their curriculum, including a very solid focus on Digital Technology. However, a good takeaway from Karadaras is that screens are addicting and that we need to watch out for the red flag of how kids react with asked to "leave" their technology for something else. If our lives are not full of other good things and interactions (physical, social, mental, spiritual) then the addictive power of screens can seriously affect the minds and spirits of young people. If a pupil has underlying learning difficulties, Nicholas Karadaras insists that difficulties of addition and problems with mind development and anti learning behaviours are more likely to occur, however other critiques of this point out the benefits of digital technologies.

What do you think? What are the impacts for us in N.Z.? How does this steer the NZ Digital Digital Technologies Curriculum? What are the values and attitudes we are teaching and modelling to our kids?

Here are the Digital Citizenship resources used within our school.

References:
Increased Screen Time Equals Suicide?
Appraisal/Critique of Above Article
Decreasing Drug Use Among Teens
Glow Kids - should kids under 10 use screens at all (Nicholas Karadaras) 13 min Youtube?
Glow Kids - should kids under 10 use screens at all (Nicholas Karadaras) 45 min Vimeo?
The Verge - Glow Screen Critique
Digital Heroin
Finland 2014 - top of PISA without Digital Technology
Finland and Innovation 2017
Finland Country Report on ICT in Education

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PD - CSER Digital Technologies Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)

I signed up for the Australian Digital Technologies course, sponsored in part by Google and the Australian Education Department.
This is my entry for the #cserTask1 of "Task 1: Introducing DTs".

Task 1: Introducing DTs RocketLab heads for Orbit!


A Digital Technologies solution has many parts to the whole. RocketLab in New Zealand is in the final parts of testing its 3D printed carbon composite Electron rocket, with the aim of becoming the foremost rocket launching entity in the world from one of its launchpads in Mahia. Rocket Lab is a private company, with major investors including Khosla Ventures, Bessemer Venture Partners, Data Collective, Promus Ventures, Lockheed Martin and K1W1, illustrating the first point of collaboration.
Collaboration both within a business (its people and administration structures) and outside (with other business partners) is an important way to bring success to a company in today's interconnected world.  Security of your data and information as it crosses the world is vital within this collaboration, but today it is possible to have different parts of your team working in different physical locations, all contributing to a project. Digital Technologies: Skyping, shared screen conferencing, collaborative documentation (eg Google Suite, Project Management) etc. all contribute to the success of a project like this.
RocketLab is seeking to provide fast and affordable payload deployment, in a way that no other firm delivers payloads and 3D Printing is an important part of this. By using 3D Printing the business can have an efficient and affordable design process from ideas to design to testing through to reiteration.
RocketLabs employs a wide range of jobs with the needs for Digital Technologies related qualifications and skills such as: Structural/Electrical/Mechanical/Electronics engineers, Designers,  Website Developers, Testers (Quality Control is a wide range of areas), Communications Specialists, Graphic Designers, Media specialists, a wide range of programmers over different coding languages, a range of networking positions, Systems Specialists, as well as management of all these aspects.
In their most recent test flight, RocketLab completed a post flight analysis to ascertain where faults could be addressed and improvements made, this follows any good design thinking process or computational process where problems are broken down and data is analysed to find solutions so that the next flight can be more successful.
Check out a look at the launch site in Mahia with the Electron rocket ready to go.
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RSS and Social Feed Reader

A quick an easy to use feed reader is vital so you can scan new items/news/entries with efficiency. With ads now jumping into my Feedly feeds and not able to scan new articles easily in my favourite view I just swapped over to using Flowreader. I really like its clean minimal design, settings and it is free to use! Awesome! Only thing I would like to see is that when you mark a category/group as "All Read" that it jumps automatically to the next unread category/group.
LIST VIEW

EXPANDED VIEW

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Hattie and Effect Size

Darcy Moore (John Hattie and his research. The synopsis is
that there continues to be a "cult" around the work of Hattie and that despite published papers and lack of response from John Hattie his research continues to dominate a lot of Australian thinking.
How will it help you? How has it helped me?
Take the Hattie research with a large grain of salt. As educators we must be very aware of what the latest 'fad' is and how it may even have 'research' behind it and STILL be very misleading.
So What?
Keep in mind balance as we move into an era more dominated by big data, robotics and AI and the consequent impact on society. How will we create a fair and equitable society that also rewards effort and ideas?
Further information to follow up on:
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iOS Educational Apps that don't work under iOS11

Before you update school iPads etc check to see what works or not. Update one iPad if you're not sure. Apps will NOT work at all under iOS11 if they are 32bit only. You can check which apps are not going to work before updating by navigating to, Settings -> General -> About -> Applications on your iOS device. There you’ll get a list of the apps currently installed on your phone that haven’t been updated for iOS 11 yet.
The other item that will be handy is when apps update themselves to use the new Files App system on iOS11. This will be useful possibly for exchanging and retention of files more easily.
Add what you find to the list in comments below and I will update!

Crash under iOS11

Pages? (has been updated but I get a crash consistently on one iPad (miniretina - ME280X/A but not an brand new iPad A1822).

Don't work yet under iOS11

Literacy

Ready to Read series MOE (NZ)

Music

Songify
MadPad HD

Mathematics

Meteor Maths
Numerosity
Mathical
Numbers!

Creativity/Thinking

CreatorVerse
RoboSockets

Coding

Atlantis


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Interactive White Boards verses LED/AppleTV and iPads

This is a review I wrote three years ago as we started to take out IWB's and replace them with LED/Apple TV's and iPads - pricing not necessarily current.

This document explores the concept of interactive whiteboards, their cost and looking at the alternative of an iPad, Apple TV, LED TV/Projector combo.


Existing Situation

A range of IWB boards in the school. Most of these are being used occasionally as IWB’s and are instead used to display screens. The biggest exception is in the Learning Support area.
5G has been trialling a different type of “interactive” system, that of iPads (the interactive hands on component) with Apple TV+ LED Screen ( the display component)

The three proposed systems

  1. IWB $7000-$9000 per system with projector, ongoing maintenance costs higher due to cost of replacing bulbs. Boards date over time but will run for years. Could also purchase touch-screen LEDS for a higher price.
  2. LED+ Apple TV for displaying of digital devices AND iPads for interactive hands on surfaces. The iPads are crucial part of the package if these are to be seen as a replacement for an IWB. Combination of 65 LED+Apple TV+8 x mini iPads = $6000
  3. Interactive projector + Apple TV for displaying of digital devices AND iPads for interactive hands on surfaces. The iPads are crucial part of the package if these are to be seen as a replacement for a full IWB. The interactive projector has dropped in price incredibly. Will work with a laptop - not iPads. Software in interactive projectors at last test Nov 2012 is not really useable and reliable, although the concept is worth revisiting in the future (best of all worlds scenario possibly)

Questions

  • Which system best fits differentiated group based learning, preparing pupils for the 1:1 laptop programme.
  • What system is better value to achieve the above?
  • What systems will require less PD (pupils and teachers)?
  • What systems have better ease of use?

Points of Difference

LED have brighter and crisper displays. Last longer and do not dim so rapidly. Bulbs in projectors are $250 - $450 to replace every two years. They are not as big as an interactive whiteboard and can be mounted on tilting technology to point to different parts of the room. Less size means smaller display for distance although with the brighter/crisper screen it possibly evens things up. LED’s have more glare from their semi-reflective surface.
iPads in teachers hands will rapidly become input devices for mobile assessment in the class (pupil and teacher), directly interfaced into SMS/LMS. iPads are not the same as laptops in their interactive use. They provide are marked ease of use in touch interactivity. They are more efficient in carrying out a variety of important portfolio tasks and interacting with LMS/SMS.
Two pupils can interact with learning packages and or show them on the projector full screen to class for same price as an IWB i.e. 3 ipads and apple TV = 2700 approx.
If we put in the newest solution from Promethean at 9395 we could purchase for a class: 5 iPads, one interactive projector (i.e has interaction without having to use a board, screen, one LED's and 2 apple TVs. This means multiple groups (ten kids at two an ipad) interaction, three points at which we can demonstrate learning (projector and two LED's) all for approx $9000.
A teacher can wirelessly connect to a projector/LED from iPads OR laptop to show materials full screen. Have a larger number of pupil interactions, keep their laptop more free (i.e. can't use laptop for other tasks while being used for IWB)

The reality of interaction of the existing IWB is that they are fairly minimal, this is because as Anna suggested at the most you can only have two kids up at the board anyway and I still think the other solutions will provide better group based, pupil based interactions. This is also because out of the box the IWB software is more difficult to use.

Ryan mentioned about multiple voting systems also with the IWB. I agree with him that this is a great idea. However, I have found that either google Forms or for quicker polling Socrative are better full class solutions that are more easily deployed, especially with 1:1 coming through. I have had experience with both systems and would say that the simplicity of Socrative makes implementation much easier in terms of feedback systems.
  • Easier to relocate the "board" to another wall. Just move the projector/LED. Any hard surface and can get large sizes easily. 
  • Easier to tilt or direct the LED display to a different part of the room.
  • Interactive projectors can run interactively without requiring a computer.
  • In some classes the boards are too high on wall to easily interact with for some pupils. Hard to adjust for all the different heights. Stools needed in most cases.
  • iPad allows you to stand/sit anywhere in the room and have the display show what you are working on. You can attach one device and then another to the Apple TV. Be great to easily work.
  • Total cost of ownership on IWB can be higher... bulbs in projectors need replacement every 2-3 years, harder to relocate these if focus of room changes.
iPads are not the same as laptops in their interactive use. They provide are marked ease of use in touch interactivity. They are more efficient in displaying and using some digital learning tools.

Purchasing Decision Notes


  • IWB’s allow physically 2-3 to interact, the Apple TV+LED+iPad combinations allow for 7 interactions for the same dollar value and more importantly I think better fit where we are trying to go with learning and teaching.
  • The combination of iPads+Apple TV + LED is less expensive to purchase and less expensive to maintain bar accidents or theft of gear.Questions
  • If you have more than one Apple TV in the room how do they handle multiple attachments? (Very well)

General

http://www.emergingedtech.com/2012/02/apple-tv-in-the-classroom-the-new-smart-board/
http://edreach.us/2011/10/21/the-ipad-2-and-apple-tv-ed-tech-industry-killer/
Is the Interactive Projector a better choice?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1IMujQQTybQ - I found these when I tested as next to useles.. maybe in 2-3 years
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SAMR - Critical Review.


There are times when the "flavour" of the month is actually a rebalancing in education as it places an emphasis that is needed as society changes. When I started teaching, setting a prescribed set of values for a school was the biggest no-no, pupils had to 'discover' these for themselves and should not be persuaded by teachers. Today, I believe in many schools values, discussion around values and even the presentation of thoughts about individual values are a high priority in many schools. If we learn anything from Finland's "educational success" it is that their education system seems to run counter to much of the competitive, assessment driven, do more systems and philosophies that have invaded many educational systems. What I especially think is impressive about Finland is that the leadership buy in seems so uniform top to bottom and they are not afraid to keep evolving or changing (there is some debate about whether they rested on their laurels recently) but this comes from the basis of the decades of educational system improvement.

So this leads us to SAMR - seen as model of digital technologies implementation. Here is a presentation with some thinking about the SAMR model in itself and as always, like Chinese whispers we need to look at the source~creator for their feedback on how their model has been implemented and the flaws they see in this or the adaptations in their thinking to the model since it was launched.

The SAMR model was created by Dr Ruben Puentedura. What Ruben would say is that you mix the different tasks, try to work at different levels and use what works. All the levels are defined relevant to your current practice and what is augmentation for one person, can be modification to another. Having said that, people often see it as 'higher is better' therefore you should only aim for "above the line" learning. It is often seen as a model for teachers, for planning, for lessons and therefore not so relevant to PBL, or inquiry types of learning.

My Take: SAMR is a simple tool for both teachers and pupils to plan and reflect on meaningful use of digital technologies in the learning journey. While it is especially more difficult to define clearly for an individual what a modification or redefinition task may look like, the simple thinking about teaching "above the line" is important to help teachers and pupils to quickly evaluate the learning task and integration with technology. It is a bit of chicken and egg scenario, higher level use of digital technologies can lead to deeper learning and deeper learning can lead to higher level use of digital technologies. Aligning SAMR with Blooms may also prove useful in some cases. It is important to keep in mind that SAMR is not a one way journey to a "higher plane", depending on the circumstances a substitution or augmentation may be the best use of digital technologies. Taking the route to deeper thinking is based on good knowledge and skills and it is much harder to have good levels of thinking without digital literacy, the same as it is harder to read to learn if you haven't learned to read! On the other side of the coins there is a reluctance to, "Learn or Teach above the Line" as it will involve change and challenge... so an emphasis on these areas of the SAMR model may be needed to really open up learning opportunities.



  Sources:
  1. Finland's "educational success"
  2. Hattie meets Puentedura on Growth Mindset criticism.
  3. Critical Review of SAMR
  4. SAMR - A model without evidence
  5. The Problem with SAMR
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Finland Update - Standardised testing, Digital Technologies and more.


Twenty years ago, Finland was under the international educational average in testing and had large gaps between affluent and poor schools. It has topped the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) recently, a test of fifteen year olds covering literacy, maths and science and is seen as a leading educational model. Recently, Singapore has topped PISA (standardised tests are not the best measurement of success) but even they are doubting the wisdom of the emphasis they have made of a focus on this type of testing. Finland meanwhile has never really decided to deliberately be top and this article explains some thinking behind this, but continues to have strong a showing in academics. Finland seems to be more concerned with other things.

Finland is a small country of five million, with industry comprising of services 65%, manufacturing and refining 31.4% and rates reasonably well in innovation indexes also. It is a strong welfare state with high taxes, a high respect for education by Finnish parents and society in general with surveys demonstrating Finns trust public schools more than any other public institution, except the police.

The most prominent feature of Finnish students’ performance in PISA, is its constant high level of results combined with small variance. Finland still stands out with its weak performers, scoring well in all domains, apart from the more recent slip of boys results. It was interesting teasing out the factors that I think have combined to produce their high international results. My perspective is from the context of New Zealand education, a country that has also scored highly on these same international tests.


Society Statistics
  • Family statistics 2016 36% married couples without children, 28% married with children, 15% co-habitating couples without children, 8% co-habitating with children, 12% one-parent families
  • Crime statistics Generally, on the low side in most categories
  • Child poverty statistics 4% child poverty in Finland. Very low compared to other countries.
  • Current % of government (public) debt to GDP is 63%, large increase last four years.
  • Median age 41 years (the oldest of most European countries)
  • Low infant mortality, high productivity and relatively high taxes
  • Happiness index 8th on table I
  • Judged to be the world's 3rd least corrupt country (Transparency International)

Finland's Education History

In the 1960's, a 9 year plan was adopted with the goal of "education for all". Significant teacher training was carried out, especially to accommodate whole age cohort teaching (a Finnish teacher in the primary area will teach the same children from 7- 16.) The system was government centralized with a detailed curriculum prescription. By 1985 municipal and school level freedom was allowed around a core curriculum. The Education Law of 1999, established a new evaluation policy with sample based NBE-implemented evaluations in key subjects, obligatory for the sampled schools but also available by fee for others for internal use. This lead to local flexibility and diversity with a strong emphasis on basic literacy and numeracy concurrent to provide wide-range education for all.
Finland, possibly has a narrower focus in the breadth of its curriculum than other countries. PISA examinations are similar in contract to the style of the curriculum that FInland focuses on which may also give its pupils an advantage in the PISA exams.
See also this very good overview of the history of education in Finland.


Notable Features
Philosophy as I summarize
  • No pupil should be left behind
  • Equity
  • Trust
  • Free education, including university and polytechnic

Education Statistics

  • Typical class size 18-20
  • Teachers work about 40% less class hours than US teachers do. Average 570 teaching hours a year for teachers in Finland (1,100 hours in the US)
  • 27 % of students having received some form of special support for their learning during basic education.
  • School year 190 days
  • Retention rate of teachers is 90%
  • Average spending on education compared to other OECD countries.
  • Zero illiteracy
  • Homework is minimal with an emphasis on extra-curricula
  • Pupils spend the fewest hours in the classroom
  • Finland has more than 4,000 comprehensive schools, 750 upper-secondary schools, 20 universities, and a great many other educational institutions.
  • 99 percent of students now successfully complete compulsory basic education, and about 90 percent complete upper secondary school
  • Two-thirds of these graduates enroll in universities or professionally oriented polytechnic schools.
  • More than 50 percent of the Finnish adult population participates in adult education
    programs.
  • Comprehensive network of libraries
The Flavour of Education in Finland
  • Informal atmosphere in the schools.
  • No formal exams and ranking of schools. The outcomes of all Finnish nine-year comprehensive schools are followed by sample-based surveys. The results are published only on the system level. Formal examination grade 9 (leaving high school) the National Board of Education makes occasional assessments in other subjects and at other grade levels in representative samples of schools and pupils and, lately, longitudinal assessments in key subject. There is no separate school inspection and inspection visits to school are no longer held. Self-evaluation and external examination are emphasized. Emphasis on formative assessment.
  • In Finnish culture, significant political conflicts and sudden changes in educational policy have been rare.
  • Teachers and schools are autonomous from state education system. Devolution of power.
  • Teachers are trusted to do their best as true professionals of education. They are entrusted with considerable pedagogical independence in the classroom, and schools have likewise enjoyed significant autonomy in organizing their work within the national curriculum.
  • Finnish teachers set high standards.
  • Flexible, school-based and teacher-planned curriculum along with student-centred instruction, counseling, and remedial teaching.
  • Schools coordinate with social service providers.
  • Teachers all require a masters degree with thousands turned down for training each year, 10-15% of those who apply are accepted. They see teaching as a life-long career. The teaching force is 100% unionized.
  • Starts with preschool (kindergarten), school starts at seven. The emphasis is on, "play". 62 %, or 229 000 children in 2013, participated in early childhood education (ages 1-6).
  • Finnish high schools have two clearly separate streams with both academically oriented general upper secondary schools and vocational institution. Most young children will stay with the same teachers for their entire education, up until 16 when they go to high school.
  • Free daily school meals
  • Right to attend closest school with school based curricula
  • Performance based funding for universities and polytechnics based on: Effectiveness (job placement and further studies); Processes (dropping out, % ratio of qualification certifications holders to entrants); Staff (formal teaching qualifications and staff development).
  • Emphasis on broad knowledge within a depth of curriculum rather than a wide curriculum. Equal value to all aspects of individual growth and learning: personality, morality, creativity, knowledge and skills.
  • The phonetic character of Finnish language makes decoding easy, leading to easier literacy success.
  • Finland research and development (around 3% of GDP , top in world is Israel on 4.3%).
  • Each family gets three free books on birth of child…. for parents and child.
The Gotchas
Cost: the teasing out the figures of the Finnish education finances may enable others to see the split between education department costs and school costs (frontline). It will also be important to see how education budgets integrate with funding from other areas such as Social Services. Secondly, Finland is a homogenous society. It has not had significant migrant or multi-cultural change over last twenty years. However, recent immigrants, prior to the latest refugee crises in the last four years, have become part of Finland's current success and Finland certainly out-performs other homogenous societies.

Off the Top of My Head

Relationships, however, are the deal-breaker in the success game. Relationships have driven a systematic reformation of the Finnish education philosophy. It started with leadership and co-operation between professionals to change a failing education system and the ongoing change has had a lack of political interference to derail it. Relationships also drive the start a pupil has in education, from the play in pre-schools to formal "primary" schooling (ages 7 to 16). Having the same teacher, who gets to know their pupils intimately (what happens with the personality conflicts I wonder?) over the first eight years they teach them, means that relationships become core to the child-teacher-parent partnership. Relationships between parents, teachers and pupils show a general trust and professionalism.

Possibly, due their tough environment and limited natural resources (except for large forest reserves), Finns have made a priority of investing in education. It seems they still have a strong family emphasis that must contribute to the stable and measured start that their children get to schooling. Finally, the lack of formal testing allows schools to develop programmes of learning that balance competition, equity and child-centred needs within the values they wish to emphasize, time is spent on learning and not on formal testing (and publishing of results) although they have a emphasis of assessment for feedback and learning within each school. For those in management who worry about this… just look at Finland's results and see that it works.

Resourcing and relationships summarize the keys of success in Finland. It would be interesting to explore further how, with an average OECD spend on education, Finland has free education, pays teachers well, provides free meals, gives teachers excellent non-contact time and has class sizes of 18-20. It is a state with high taxes, and Finland has a government debt to GDP ratio of 63% at this point in time indicating some financial stress.

Where do we go in N.Z.? 

Our spending on education is high for what we are achieving, indicating I believe a range of inefficiencies, it would be interesting to compare statistics for various areas throughout the education budget with a similar breakdowns from Canada and New Zealand to pinpoint more accurately where the inefficiencies are ]. Our inequality in education results is still high, so I think a start would be look at the best of what Finland and Canada have to offer is important to help start our journey and educational conversations in a way that moves forward. To do so, we need professional and Education Ministry decisions made not just on what educationalists think, parents want, teachers want, pupils need, not just on the latest fad, but based on researched results. Charter schools is newer direction for instance, that seems to involve a higher percentage of education budget vote per school and international research shows minimum positive effect.We also should not desire to focus on testing, including PISA but also on creativity and collaboration, including  digital literacy and STEAM digital technologies based on a strong foundation of Reading, Maths and the Arts. Simplification of areas of curriculum and topics, less but deeper, could also bring benefits, so we really build a range of literacies and skills in reading, maths, digital, arts etc.) and then apply them to help us learn and create.  And a cautionary note, that in a system which has rightly tried to address girls education, results and learning opportunities that we need more awareness of lag now in boy's education and performance, something to address before we have generations of increasingly unengaged boys further affecting results, something that Finland's results in PISA have shown.

Previous Article
This post is based on my previous Finland post found here.

Sources - Check out more
Latest Links
Historical Links
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Getting into Scratch coding with a Flipped video channel.



I have been working with Year 5 - 8 and online Scratch accounts. First of all be aware that there are teacher accounts - save the whole setting up accounts, usernames and forgotten passwords thing.
I started pupils in a class sense and then got them working on Flipped learning. A lot of talk around self-management, Digital Citizenship (especially digital footprints) to kick-off. 

Following the exploration of Scratch we will design te Reo games for our buddy classes and also enter in the Interface Scratch competition. Here is a link to my Flipped Learning Maze presentation (videos mostly OK). Dr Scratch is really cool to help do ongoing formative assessment (see presentation for link) - but peer assessment will be an ultimate judge for the games.

I was amazed about how quiet and focused the class became once we started flipped learning. Less problems, more thinking and differentiated learning - awesome!
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Contributions to Pond

I have continued having fun placing resources in POND for our 1:1 programs and iPad programmes. I seem to spend more time creating these resources than posting about them online but here is access to many of them.
https://www.pond.co.nz/community/99135/warren-grieve/contributions/1/all
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